Using a questionnaire, the scientists sought to identify the participants’ affective resonance - their impulse to act on feelings stirred by another person - and asked a series of personality questions about how well certain statements represented their behaviour on a scale.
The survey also asked about compliance with Covid-19 containment measures over time, such as mask wearing.
When profiles were analysed, two were identified: an antisocial pattern profile who were resistant to Covid-19 safety measures and an empathy pattern profile who were compliant.
The antisocial profile was linked to higher scores in the personality questions related to “callousness, deceitfulness, hostility, impulsivity, irresponsibility, manipulativeness, and risk-taking” which are typical of Antisocial Personality Disorder. This group also had lower scores in affective resonance.
The empathy pattern profile showed higher scores in affective resonance and lower scores in the traits associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD).
The team who conducted the study said they hoped the findings would help to persuade health officials to do more to educate people and influence their policies.
"Through screenings that demonstrate an elevation in these [ASPD] traits, interventions can be carried out aiming at greater awareness and consequent compliance with containment measures”, the team explained.
While worldwide protests have taken place surrounding mask wearing, their effectiveness continues to be proven in a growing number of studies.
An international report published in The Lancet, which analysed data from 172 studies in 16 countries, found that by wearing a face mask there is just a 3% chance of catching COVID-19.