Many of us enjoy spending night watching stars, moon and observing different constellations. Some people have a hobby of stargazing. They own expensive telescopes and enjoy night sky.
The stars and constellations are common and can be observed from any corner of the world. But, have you ever heard about northern lights, also known as aurora borealis.
This is now you know and today we have come to tell you what are northern lights?
The night sky of North Pole and South Pole experience a flare of green and red lights during the night which are called northern lights and southern lights respectively. Well, these are nothing but tiny packets of light called photons.
Now the question arises where do these photons come from?
The reason for this is sun, as we all know that sun is a big and hot ball of fire. The nuclear fusion that happens inside sun converts hydrogen atoms into helium atoms which also results in the production of plasma state, which is the fourth state of matter.
Plasma gas surrounds the outer layer of sun and creates a magnetic field around sun. but sometimes, these gases escape the magnetic field and is called solar flare or solar wind, and hit the earth's magnetosphere. Magnetosphere is earth's protective magnetic field which is made by the iron alloy present in core of the earth.
Solar wind when hit earth's magnetosphere, majority of it bounces back but some of it penetrates from 2 points where the magnetic field is weak, i.e., North Pole and South Pole.
Solar wind when comes in contact with atmosphere of earth. It transfers its energy to gas electrons and excites them. When the excited gas electrons come back to their normal state, they emit this energy in the form of colorful and beautiful photons.
Aurora borealis gets its green and red color because of oxygen and nitrogen present in the atmosphere. These lights follow earth's magnetic field and are observed in round shapes.
Watching them would be an out of the world experience for sure!
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