The world’s most expensive footballer was substituted after tweaking his groin as he shot at goal with only seven minutes gone in the international match at Milton Keynes.
Team doctor Rodrigo Lasmar told reporters that while a scan was needed to confirm the exact diagnosis, he did not think the injury to Neymar's adductor muscle would keep him out for long and Neymar confirmed that early diagnosis on social media.
“Thanks to everyone who sent me messages wishing me a quick recovery, I don't think it's anything serious,” he wrote on Instagram.
Brazil went on to win the match with Neymar's replacement Richarlison scoring the only goal of the game one minute before half-time.
The result took Brazil's record since the World Cup to six wins in six games with six clean sheets.
“We ended the year happy with the work we've done up until now, these last games were important to help us recover after the setback that was the World Cup,” Neymar added.
“We remain strong, focused and looking to always get better.”
Mbappe fell awkwardly on his right shoulder after a challenge from Uruguay goalkeeper Marin Campana.
“He has a sore shoulder, he's fallen badly,” France coach Didier Deschamps said at half-time. “He will have to see after with the medical staff. I hope it's not bad.”
PSG host Toulouse in Ligue 1 on Saturday, and will be hoping that both Neymar and Mbappe are fully recovered in time to face Liverpool in the Champions League three days later.
The French giants currently lie third in Group C, one point behind Napoli and Liverpool, having won only one of their four matches played in the competition this season.
Neymar has contributed 15 goals and six assists in 17 appearances across all competitions for PSG this season, while Mbappe has registered 17 goals and six assists in 18 club games.