The first Prime Minister of independent India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889 in Allahabad. He was very popular among little children due to his amicability and congeniality. Hence, on his birthday, India celebrates children’s day.
His father, Motilal Nehru was a lawyer and he served as president of the Indian National Congress during India’s struggle for independence. Pandit Nehru was home schooled till he turned 15. He then grew up to study Natural Science from Trinity College in Cambridge and graduated in 1910. Two years later, in 1912, he returned to India and wanted to practice law as an advocate in Allahabad High Court.
However, it is believed that after the Jallianwala Bagh incident, he had overheard General Dyer’s satisfaction over the mass murder and pledged to work towards India’s independence.
During India’s freedom movement, Pandit Nehru was imprisoned 9 times. He was jailed by the British for a total of 3,259 days which is close to 9 years of his life spent behind the bars. Pandit Nehru penned an autobiography ‘Toward Freedom’ when he was in jail.
Article 44 of the Indian Constitution was written by Nehru, which gave India the status of ‘secular nation’. The article reads, 'The State shall endeavor to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.' He wanted to eradicate religious taboos and establish India as a united nation.
When he died on May 27, 1964, due to heart failure, around 1.5 million Indians gathered to bid adieu to their first Prime Minister. His daughter Indira Gandhi went on to become India’s first female Prime Minister.