Match Fixing in Cricket: A Timeline

The Playing Field

Match fixing is not a new phenomenon to hit cricket as there has been a lot of talk of cricketers throwing matches for money, the most recent incident being the arrest of London-based Mazhar Majeed who allegedly lured Pakistani fast bowlers Mohammad Amir and Mohammad Asif to deliver three blatant no-balls in the Lord's Test against England.

In a sting operation conducted by The News of the World, it was revealed that Mazhar received some 150,000 pounds from the tabloid and promised the undercover reporter that the fast bowlers will bowl no-balls at the agreed moment of the game.

Here's a rundown of match-fixing allegations to have hit the game:

1979-80

An early instance of match fixing can be traced back to the Test series between India and Pakistan in 1979. It happened in the final Test at Calcutta when Asif Iqbal reportedly picked up the coin and told GR Viswanath that India had won the toss. It was Sarfaraz Nawaz who made this allegation two decades later.

1981

Australian players Dennis Lillee and Rodney Marsh bet against their own team, backing England at the odds of 500 to one in the Headingley Test. No action was taken against them.

1992-93

Australian batsman Dean Jones claims to have been offered $50,000 by an Indian to provide information about the team during the Lankan tour.

1993

Allan Border alleges that he was offered £500,000 by Mushtaq Mohammed to lose a Test match against England.

1996

Former Indian team manager, Sunil Dev alleges that some of the Indian players indulged in match fixing and demands a judicial enquiry.

1997

Manoj Prabhakar accuses a fellow Team India player of offering him Rs 25 lakh to throw a match in Sri Lanka in 1994. His revelation leads the BCCI to appoint a commission to look into the allegation.

1998

Pakistan bowler Ata-ur-Rahman accuses Wasim Akram of offering him Rs 3 lakh to bowl badly against New Zealand. As a result of this allegation, Wasim Akram resigns as captain of the Pakistan team.

1998

Rashid Latif accuses Wasim Akram, Salim Malik, Inzamam-ul-Haq and Ijaz Ahmed of fixing matches. He also accuses Salim Malik of fixing matches during Pakistan's twin tour of South Africa and Zimbabwe in 1994-95.

1998

Mark Waugh, Shane Warne and Tim May claim they were offered $50,000 to lose a Test by Salim Malik during their tour to Pakistan in 1994. The Australian cricket board then asks the ICC to appoint a panel to look into the allegations. The PCB in its enquiry implicates three Pakistan players and recommends a ban on Salim Malik.

1998

Shane Warne and Mark Waugh confess to having accepted $11,000 from an Indian bookie to give some information on playing conditions during a tournament played in Sri Lanka in 1994. The Australian cricket board later says that it would impose a hefty fine on Warne and Waugh.

1999

Former England player Chris Lewis says that he was offered £300,000 to persuade England players to lose a match against New Zealand.

April 7, 2000

Delhi police charge Hansie Cronje with fixing South Africa's ODIs against India. Delhi police also reveal that they possess a conversation recorded during the ODI series between India and South Africa in March. They allege that the taped voices were of South African skipper Hansie Cronje and an Indian bookie, Sanjay Chawla. The conversation was about divulging team information and the amount to be paid to Cronje and his team-mates Herschelle Gibbs, Pieter Strydom and Nicky Boje.

April 9, 2000

Hansie Cronje vehemently denies the charges levelled against him saying, "I have never received any sum of money for any match that I have been involved in and have never approached any of the players and asked them if they wanted to fix a game."

April 11, 2000

The South African cricket board sacks Hansie Cronje after he calls Ali Bacher to confess that he was not entirely honest and admitted that to have accepted $10,000 to $15,000 from a London-based bookmaker, for forecasting results, not match-fixing.

April 15, 2000

Now, clouds of match fixing surround England's victory in the Centurion Test, where Cronje took the unexpected step of forfeiting an innings.

April 16, 2000

It is revealed that South Africa nearly accepted a $250,000 to lose a ODI against India in Mumbai in 1996. The players had discussed the offer in three meetings before it was turned down as Jonty Rhodes, Dave Richardson and Andrew Hudson were against it.

May 24, 2000

After a year long enquiry, Justice Qayyum finds Saleem Malik and Ata-ur-Rehman guilty of fixing matches and recommends life bans for the two. The report also says Wasim Akram and Mushtaq Ahmed should not be allowed to captain Pakistan in the future.

June 7, 2000

Former South African spinner Pat Symcox alleges that the team was offered around $250,000 to throw an ODI, on the first day of the King Commission hearings.

June 8, 2000

Herschelle Gibbs accuses Hansie Cronje of offering him a bribe to throw a match and tells the King Commission that he had accepted Cronje's offer of $15,000 to score less than 20 runs in an ODI in India.

June 15, 2000

Cronje admits to taking money for giving information to bookmakers and asking his team-mates to play badly. But he tells the King Commission that South Africa had never thrown or fixed a match under his captaincy.

June 27, 2000

Former Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Sir Paul Condon becomes the International Cricket Council's new anti-corruption investigator.

July 20, 2000

Indian income tax officials raid the homes of top cricket players, including those of then national coach Kapil Dev, former players Azharuddin, Ajay Jadeja, Nayan Mongia and Nikhil Chopra.

August 28, 2000

The United Cricket Board of South Africa bans Herschelle Gibbs and Henry Williams from international cricket for the rest of the year for their involvement in the Cronje scandal.

October 11, 2000

Cronje is banned from cricket for life by the United Cricket Board of South Africa as a result of his admission that he received money from bookmakers.

"The UCBSA council hereby intends to ban Hansie Cronje for life from all activities of the UCBSA and its affiliates," says a statement issued by the United Cricket Board of South Africa.

October 31, 2000

Bookmaker MK Gupta names several players including Brian Lara, Dean Jones, Alec Stewart, Arjuna Ranatunga, Aravinda de Silva, Martin Crowe and Saleem Malik of being involved in match fixing, says a CBI report. The CBI also says that former India captain Mohammad Azharuddin confessed to fixing games with the help of colleagues Ajay Jadeja and Nayan Mongia.

November 27, 2000

BCCI's anti-corruption commissioner K Madhavan finds Mohammad Azharuddin guilty of match-fixing, while Ajay Jadeja, Manoj Prabhakar, Ajay Sharma and former Indian team physio Ali Irani are found guilty of having links with bookies.

December 5, 2000

BCCI bans Azharuddin for life and Ajay Jadeja for five years for their role in match-fixing. Ajay Sharma is also banned from the game for life, while Prabhakar and the Indian team's former physio, Ali Irani, are barred from holding any official post in Indian cricket for five years.

July 11, 2001

Former England wicketkeeper batsman Alec Stewart is cleared of allegations that he took money from a bookmaker in return for providing team and pitch information during England's 1992-93 tour of India.

May 12, 2004

Marvan Atapattu is cleared of match-fixing allegations for lack of evidence by the Sri Lankan Cricket Board.

August 17, 2004

Kenyan player Maurice Odumbe is banned for five years by the Kenyan Cricket Association after he is found guilty of receiving money from bookmakers.

November 7, 2004

Stephen Fleming alleges that he was offered $370,000 during the 1999 World Cup to join a match-fixing syndicate.

May 13, 2008

West Indies player Marlon Samuels is slapped a ban of two years for allegedly passing on information to an Indian bookie during an ODI series in India in 2007.